Singapore is an island, a global city and a city-state. It is currently ranked first in Asia for quality of living standards. This ranking is based on many factors, most importantly clean, reliable energy for consumers, businesses and industries; clean air; and abundant clean water. The most essential, however, is a sustainable water supply, and that is Singapore’s singular challenge.
While Singapore is a tropical island in Southeast Asia surrounded by seawater and with considerable rainfall throughout the year, it has no natural aquifers or lakes and has limited land to collect and store rainwater. Singapore makes water conservation and resilience its top priorities, adopting a diversified water supply strategy, known as the “Four National Taps.” These Taps comprise local catchment water, imported water, high-grade reclaimed water known as NEWater, and desalinated water.